Inguino-scrotal sarcomas

A sarcoma is a malignant tumour that originates from mesenchymal cells such as adipose tissue, bone, cartilage and smooth muscle. Although these tumours histologically do not originate from the urogenital tract, urologists are often involved in their diagnosis and management...

Understanding Stauffer’s syndrome

Who was Stauffer and what is Stauffer’s syndrome? Maurice Stauffer (1915-1994) was a gastroenterologist at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, United States, and in 1961 first characterised the non-metastatic, paraneoplastic effects of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) on liver size and...

Stuttering (recurrent ischaemic) priapism

Stuttering (recurrent ischaemic) priapism (SP) is a rare urological condition. Affected men will often experience almost daily prolonged and painful sleep related erections (SRE). Interestingly, these men report normal erections during the day and whilst awake. These episodes are usually...

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents 2-3% of all cancers [1]. It is an adenocarcinoma making up 85% of all renal malignancies. Sarcomatoid transformation is a microscopically identified feature of RCC accounting for 5% of all RCCs [2]. Known as sarcomatoid...

Introduction to prostate cryotherapy

Introduction Cryotherapy was first described by Dr James Arnott in 1850 where he used crushed ice and salt to get temperatures as low as -24oC, in the treatment of cervical and breast tumours [1]. The literature on prostatic cryotherapy dates...

Management of stage 1 non-seminomatous germ cell tumours

Testicular cancer (TC) is the most successfully treated solid tumour, achieving a cure rate of 90-95% [1-3]. Testicular cancer is relatively rare with an incidence of 2207 cases in the UK in 2014 [4] and yet is the most common...

Testicular cancer: management of stage I seminoma

Introduction Testicular cancer is the most frequently occurring solid tumour in men between the ages of 15 and 34 years [1]. About 60% of cases are seminomas and approximately 70-80% of them have, at presentation, clinical stage I disease. This...

Molecular biology – bladder cancer

Background Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urinary tract and approximately 90% of bladder cancers diagnosed in North America and Europe are transitional cell carcinomas (TCC). For the purposes of diagnosis and treatment, bladder cancer is often...