Bladder cancer

Case 1 A 78-year-old female presents with a week history of painless haematuria. She’s a smoker and used to work in the textiles industry. She underwent a flexible cystoscopy. What does this image show? What are the two-week wait National...

Urethral pathology

Case 1 A 43-year-old lady presents with urinary incontinence and vaginal pain associated with intercourse. An initial CT scan is performed. Case courtesy of Radswiki, Radiopaedia.org, rID: 12056. Case courtesy of Radswiki, Radiopaedia.org, rID: 12056 What is the clinical diagnosis...

Infections and inflammation: Part 3

See also Part 1 and Part 2 Case 1 You review a man in the Emergency Department with scrotal pain and sepsis. His clinical examination findings are shown. What does this image show? Who was this condition named after? What...

Infections and inflammation: Part 2

See also Part 1 and Part 3. Case 1 A 43-year-old lady presented to the urologist with a history of pain during bladder filling and associated frequency / urgency. She underwent standard microbiological and radiological investigations that are normal. She...

Infections and inflammation: Part 1

See also Part 2 and Part 3. Case 1 A 59-year-old man presented with right loin pain. His GP arranged for him to have an intravenous urogram (IVU) and subsequent CT urogram performed. What is the likely diagnosis? What are...

Sexually transmitted infections

Case 1 A 27-year-old man presents to the clinic with multiple asymptomatic penile lesions. 1. What is the diagnosis? 2. What are the likely pathogens which cause these lesions? 3. What treatment options are available to treat these lesions? 4....

The adrenals

Case 1 A 45-year-old man undergoes a CT of his abdomen to stage a newly diagnosed bowel malignancy. What does the scan show? What findings on a CT scan suggest an adrenal lesion is benign? If the CT scan is...

Uropathology: what’s the diagnosis?

Case 1 A 28-year-old man presented with a left testicular mass. Tumour markers were taken and he went on to have a radical inguinal orchidectomy. The specimen and histology are shown. Which testicular tumour markers were taken? What does their...

I wasn’t expecting that! A series of unexpected radiology findings

Case 1 A 76-year-old diabetic man with a long-term catheter presents to the Emergency Department with rigors and non-specific abdominal pain. He has an elevated white cell count (WCC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). An abdominal and pelvic CT scan was...

Nephrocalcinosis

Case 1 What does this x-ray of the kidney, ureter and bladder (KUB) show? What are the likely causes? What is the pathology behind medullary sponge kidneys (MSK)? What is the risk of urolithiasis with MSK? How are such patients...

Clinical Trials 2 – key papers

Clinical Trials 1 is available here. Case 1 This British study on haematuria clinic diagnostic yield was published in the British Journal of Urology International in 2006. The results are often asked in examinations! Edwards TJ, et al. A prospective...

Clinical trials 1

Clinical Trials 2 is available here. Case 1 1. What are the levels of clinical evidence based on the 2009 definitions from the ‘Oxford CEBM’? 2. What is the null hypothesis? 3. What are type 1 and type 2 errors?...

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