Seminal vesicle calculi

Epidemiology Seminal vesicle calculi are uncommon with just over 100 cases being reported in the literature, although the true incidence is likely to be higher [1-9]. Patients usually present aged between 30 and 45 years old and although the pathogenesis...

Peno-scrotal extramammary Paget’s disease

Epidemiology Extramammary Paget’s disease (EMP) is a rare intraepithelial neoplasm, which is rarely invasive and has an incidence of six per million person-years as calculated by a European SEER analysis [1]. It usually affects apocrine gland-bearing areas, especially the vulvar,...

Introduction to prostate cryotherapy

Introduction Cryotherapy was first described by Dr James Arnott in 1850 where he used crushed ice and salt to get temperatures as low as -24oC, in the treatment of cervical and breast tumours [1]. The literature on prostatic cryotherapy dates...

An update on lower pole stone management for 2015

Introduction Urolithiasis is an increasing healthcare problem, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of up to 15% [1]. The number of interventions undertaken for stone disease has increased dramatically over recent years, particularly with respect to ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)...

Management of stage 1 non-seminomatous germ cell tumours

Testicular cancer (TC) is the most successfully treated solid tumour, achieving a cure rate of 90-95% [1-3]. Testicular cancer is relatively rare with an incidence of 2207 cases in the UK in 2014 [4] and yet is the most common...

Testicular cancer: management of stage I seminoma

Introduction Testicular cancer is the most frequently occurring solid tumour in men between the ages of 15 and 34 years [1]. About 60% of cases are seminomas and approximately 70-80% of them have, at presentation, clinical stage I disease. This...

Erectile dysfunction part II: treatment

Introduction The identification of specific risk factors associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) allows patients with mild or moderate ED to undergo a series of lifestyle changes, which may provide enough improvement in the erectile function to avoid pharmacotherapies. Cessation of...

Erectile Dysfunction Part I: pathophysiology and risk factors

Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the inability to achieve and maintain a penile erection, which is adequate for satisfactory sexual intercourse. The Massachusetts Male Ageing Study (MMAS) reported the results of a regional survey of men aged 40–69...

Molecular biology – bladder cancer

Background Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urinary tract and approximately 90% of bladder cancers diagnosed in North America and Europe are transitional cell carcinomas (TCC). For the purposes of diagnosis and treatment, bladder cancer is often...

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