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Endoscopic injection of bulking agent for recurrent paediatric epididymitis

Paediatric recurrent epididymitis is frequently observed in several urogenital conditions, and may result in deterioration of long-term fertility. The management of recurrent epididymitis is still a therapeutic challenge for paediatric urologists, and as yet there is no consensus for treatment....


Bladder debris on ultrasound as a predictor for positive urine culture

One of the common ultrasound findings in children who undergo renal tract evaluation is ‘debris in the bladder’. The aetiology of bladder debris is varied and the likelihood that urinary debris represents positive urine culture is debatable. The authors of...


Upper pole access is safe and effective for paediatric percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Upper pole access for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) provides a straight access tract to the ureter with easier placement of a guidewire, good exposure of the pelvis and upper ureter, and comfortable manipulations for the treatment of staghorn, large upper caliceal,...