What should we do with the incidentally detected renal cyst in a child?

The introduction of routine prenatal screening in the early 1980s resulted in paediatric urologists being confronted with the dilemma of what to do with antenatally-detected urinary tract dilatation, many of whom, we now know, do not require long-term surveillance or...

Does stable or decreasing hydronephrosis on ultrasound lead to stable or improved function on diuretic renography?

Antenatal hydronephrosis is noted in approximately 1% of all pregnancies. Persistent renal obstruction may lead to progressive loss of renal function. Renal ultrasound (USS) is the preferred modality for diagnosis and monitoring of paediatric hydronephrosis as it is non-invasive, non-ionising,...

Non-urologist non-physician assessment of scrotal pain using the TWIST score

Testicular torsion is a urological emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and intervention. Some providers are becoming increasingly dependent on ultrasound (US) to make the diagnosis. This NIH clinical trial evaluated the use of the TWIST (Testicular Workup for Ischaemia and...

Increasing PSA after negative prostate biopsy - solving the clinical puzzle

There are standard guidelines for first transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) guided biopsy in a patient presenting with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or suspicious digital rectal examination (DRE) findings. Patients are generally warned before a TRUS biopsy in respect of a false...