Developing and validating a new nomogram for diagnosing BOO in women

Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in women is thought to be present in between 2.7% and 27%. Causes of BOO in women may be anatomical or functional. Yet, unlike the diagnosis in men, there is no standard definition for BOO in...

Liquid paraffin versus lidocaine

Topical anaesthetics have been used in urology since 1884, when Pease described using “cocaine in a sensitive urethra with charming results”. Since 1949, 2% lidocaine has been increasingly used intraurethrally for cystoscopy and other procedures. This article is a pilot...

Update on urodynamic equipment performance

This article is from the steering committee of the International Continence Society (ICS) and it gives a comprehensive account of what is required from modern urodynamic machines. It will be of interest to purchasers, designers and clinical users (doctors and...