These authors carried out a systematic review using PubMed and a number of terms to pick up studies with an underlying diagnosis of myelomeningocele and bladder cancer, with exclusions of cord injury, tuberculosis, schistosomiasis, or prior ureterosigmoidostomy. Their aim was to “evaluate factors in myelomeningocele patients with bladder cancer, including bladder augmentation, that contribute to overall survival (OS).” Fifty-two patients from 28 studies were identified. Median age of bladder cancer was 41 years (range 13-73). Stages were III or IV. Survival was 48.5% for one year and 31.5% for two years with significant better outcomes if there was no augmentation (although augmentation did not worsen overall survival in their conclusions). The authors conclude that all patients with myelomeningocele should be warned of malignancy risk of the bladder with their condition.