Interstitial cystitis / painful bladder syndrome (IC / PBS) is not fully understood and is associated with significant morbidity. The objective of this study was to provide initial data to evaluate mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) as a treatment for IC / PBS sufferers. MBSR is a standardised programme of various components including yoga and meditation. This randomised controlled trial studied 20 women with IC / PBS who were undergoing first or second-line treatment. Patients were randomised to usual care (UC) (11 women) or an eight-week MBSR class + usual care (nine women). Patients were assessed using various methods including the O’Leary-Sant Symptom Problem Index (OSPI) and the visual analog pain score (VAS). The MBSR group showed an improvement in many of the symptom scores but the VAS did not differ between groups. The group concluded that MBSR is a promising adjunctive therapy for IC / PBS. It suggests that some of this benefit may be the result of patient empowerment and helping their ability to cope with symptoms.