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Bed wetting is a common disorder that can potentially limit social interactions (e.g., sleepovers) and have emotional implications for both the child and their family. Here, Sa et al. from Brazil, hypothesised that involving parents in the treatment and providing them with psychological interventions, would improve outcomes for their children. Sixty-six children were included in the study. In both groups (control and experimental), children were followed by a urologist, a urotherapist and psychologist. In the experimental group, parental psychological input (assistance in better understanding enuresis, conflict management and increasing family co-operation with treatment) was provided for half an hour every 15 days for six months. Punishment and behaviour were evaluated with standardised questionnaires before and after treatment. Interestingly, similar violence scores (verbal, chastisement, or physical aggression) were observed in both groups before treatment. After six months of therapy, parents in the experimental group became less violent and more tolerant. Likewise, the children in the experimental group exhibited the highest response (P<0.05) in terms of the number of dry nights experienced (prior to treatment, they had exhibited fewer dry nights than the control group). This study demonstrates the impact that night wetting can have on both the child and their family and that integrating parents into the treatment strategy may improve outcomes. However, psychological therapy is not always readily available for children (service availability or financial implications) let alone their parents. It does however, remind us that it is important to educate parents as much as possible and direct them to readily accessible resources e.g., ERIC (

Psychological intervention with parents improves treatment results and reduces punishment in children with enuresis: a randomized clinical trial.
Sa CA, Martins de Souza SA, Villela MCBVA, et al.
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Neil Featherstone

Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (Addenbrookes Hospital).

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