This article from the west of Germany will be of interest to many of us who use alpha-blockers for bladder outflow symptoms. The classic model of understanding of alpha receptors has been challenged recently. Further models have been identified, including intracellular mediators of contraction, non-contractile signalling and post-translational regulation. In short, the prostate alpha receptor is no longer an isolated receptor. It may be just part of a complex network of intra / su-cellular mechanisms. The paper is supported by 144 references. 

Prostatic alpha 1 adrenoreceptors: new concepts of function, regulation and intra cellular signalling.
Hennenberg M, Stief CG, Gratzke C.
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Arun K Sharma

West Herts NHS Trust (Watford General Hospital)

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