Bladder carcinoma MRI

Bladder malignancy is one of the commonest malignancies of the renal tract, accounting for approximately 6% of male malignancy and 2% of female malignancy. The incidence increases with patient age with 70% of patients being over the age of 65...

Testicular tumour imaging

Testicular tumours are the most common tumour in young males with a peak incidence seen between 25 and 34 years [1]. The overall incidence is slowly increasing, although the exact reasons for this are uncertain, and there is a greater...

Retroperitoneal fibrosis

Introduction Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a condition that occurs when extensive fibrosis develops in the retroperitoneum, usually centred over the anterior aspect of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae. The fibrotic tissue typically surrounds the infrarenal aorta, inferior vena cava...

Radiology quiz

We are delighted to introduce something new for the Uroradiology Focus – our very own Jane Belfield has put together a urology imaging quiz with 10 cases designed to grab your interest and test your knowledge. Good luck and let...

Imaging of varicoceles

A varicocele is a collection of dilated, tortuous spermatic veins of the pampiniform venous plexus. It is seen in 10-15% of the general population and is associated with both primary and secondary infertility. A varicocele is the most common cause...

Indeterminate renal lesions – a pragmatic imaging approach

The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the UK has increased steadily over the last two decades, largely driven by the increasing use of abdominal imaging and the incidental detection of small renal lesions [1]. The majority of incidental...

Pelvic floor imaging – a brief synopsis

Background Pelvic floor imaging is an important part of both gastrointestinal and functional urology / urogynaecological departments. Symptoms such as obstructive defecation, incontinence and sphincter complex disorders have a significant impact on patient lifestyle and physical / mental well-being [1,2]....

Urethral diverticulum: a review of the literature and local experience

Urethral diverticula are an uncommon finding on imaging. They are focal outpouchings of the urethra into the periurethral / urethrovaginal space, occurring more frequently in females (up to 6% of women) [1]. These diverticula are becoming more prevalent in clinical...

Radiological appearances of renal vascular anatomical variants

The purpose of this article is to explain and illustrate common renal vascular variants that can be depicted with imaging. Renal vessels commonly present a wide range of variations [1]; before major renal or vascular surgery is undertaken, accurate portrayal...

Radiological appearances of non-vascular renal anatomical variants

Anatomical variants of the renal tract are common and, although often asymptomatic, may present with complications. It is essential to identify anatomical variants, as this may have an impact upon surgical planning and management. This article aims to demonstrate radiological...

Testicular microlithiasis

Introduction Testicular microlithiasis (TML) was originally described in 1970 in a healthy four-year-old boy [1] and the first paper regarding microlithiasis as an entity seen on ultrasound was published in 1987 [2]. Testicular microlithiasis is seen on ultrasound as small,...

Use of MRI in the evaluation of prostate cancer: part 2

Diffusion weighted imaging and contrast enhanced imaging Introduction Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in localisation, staging and post-treatment follow-up of prostate cancer. In the previous issue, we discussed the usefulness of MRI in depicting prostate anatomy and pairing...

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