This study examined a cohort of non-statin using patients who participated in the REDUCE study. The REDUCE study included men who had an elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) and a negative baseline prostate biopsy who then underwent year two and year four prostate biopsies. The authors conducted a post-hoc analysis looking at associations between baseline serum levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and prostate cancer risk. High total serum cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of high grade prostate cancer while high HDL levels were associated with an increased overall risk of prostate cancer as well as high grade cancer. The authors propose a cholesterol-prostate cancer link, as cholesterol is the precursor for androgen synthesis by the prostate. These findings have been supported by both xenograft studies as well as the findings of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) which raise the prospect of cholesterol control being a modifiable risk factor in prostate cancer.