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Medical statistics for urologists: part 2 – probability and hypothesis testing

Following on from part 1 of this series, this article aims to build on other analytical techniques commonly used within medical research, focusing on simple examples. Probability and testing Before exploring hypothesis testing, it is vital to understand the basics...


Medical statistics for urologists: part 1

Part 2 of this topic is available here Clinicians often consider statistics to be a dry and challenging subject. However, an understanding of the basics of statistic methods underpins the interpretation and use of current best evidence from systemic research....


History of prostate biopsy – part 2

For Part 1 of this topic is available here. The major limitations of the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy (PBx) protocols are the risk of profound sepsis and the risk of persistently significant false negative rates, related to the...


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