Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients after enterocystoplasty

It is well known that enterocystoplasty within terminal ileum leads to vitamin B12 deficiency and regular monitoring of this post-surgery is essential. Often supplements need to be given because of deficiency in up to 40% of patients. These authors looked...

Accuracy of orchidometry in boys with varicocele

The management of adolescent varicocele remains controversial. One issue that remains unresolved is that of testicular size determination pre and post any form of conservative or surgical option. These authors compared the results of using a Rochester orchiometer and ultrasound...

Bladder urothelial neoplasms in children

Urothelial bladder neoplasms are rare in children, occurring in 0.1-0.4% of the population before the age of 20. There are no current paediatric guidelines to their management. This study retrospectively reviews the files of patients from three tertiary centres between...

Laparoscopic transposition of renal lower pole crossing vessels

The vascular hitch procedure for pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) was initially described by Hellstroem in1951 and has become popular again since the introduction of laparoscopy. There is still much controversy as to its efficiency. The authors of this paper analyse...

Pre-transplant management of valve bladder

This paper examines the evidence concerning the timing, indications and problems associated with augmentation cystoplasty (AC), posterior urethral valves (PUV), and end stage renal failure (ESRF) using a literature review via Medline, Cochrane library and LILACS databases. Two search strategies...

A new treatment algorithm for ureteral fibroepithelial polyps in children

Fibroepithelial polyps are rare in the urinary tract (found in 0.5% of all paediatric pyeloplasties and 5% of all cases of paediatric ureteral obstruction). The advent of ureteroscopy in paediatrics has increased the identification and treatment of these. This paper...

Laparoscopic ureteral ligation (clipping)

Ectopic ureters in the presence of an upper moiety duplex kidney, or non functioning upper moieties, are traditionally treated with a heminephrectomy (open or laparoscopic). This carries significant risks, especially loss of the remaining lower moiety. These authors describe a...

Cumulative incidence of outcomes and urologic procedures after augmentation cystoplasty

The authors of this paper describe the cumulative incidence of outcomes and surgical procedures following paediatric augmentation cystoplasties in the USA. They included all children <18 years over an 11-year period in their study and used the Pediatric Health Information...

Hypercalciuria in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis

Nocturnal enuresis, defined as intermittent urinary incontinence, regardless of the presence or absence of daytime symptoms, is common. Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis – MSNE (no daytime symptoms) has four main causes identified with it: poor vasopressin action, nocturnal polyuria, poor arousal...

MRU for diagnosis of paediatric ureteral stricture

Hydronephrosis is diagnosed antenatally in approximately 1-5% of all pregnancies. A rare cause is ureteral stricture, found in 4% of these cases. This study reports a series of 28 strictures diagnosed over a 10-year period by magnetic resonance urography (MRU)...

Multidisciplinary consensus on the classification of prenatal and postnatal UT dilation classification system

There is a lack of evidence in the literature correlating prenatal and postnatal urinary tract (UT) dilation pathology because classification systems vary, differing descriptive terms are used, and because dilation is a dynamic process and uropathies present a spectrum of...

UTI and VUR in children with mild antenatal hydronephrosis

This paper describes a retrospective analysis of 760 (608 males, 162 females) patients identified with mild antenatal hydronephrosis (defined by an anteroposterior (AP) pelvic diameter of 7-10mm in the third trimester and persistent postnatal dilation) looking at the incidence of...