ICS updates on continence care: what’s hot in physiotherapy after 80 years?

Origins of pelvic floor physiotherapy Physiotherapy, and in particular pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is nowadays first-line management for pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD). PFMT is originally attributed to Dr Arthur Kegel, hence the term Kegel exercises. Indeed, he was the...

Management of recurrent cystitis

Acute uncomplicated infective cystitis is most commonly seen in healthy women with a frequency of around 0.5-0.7 episodes per woman per year [1]. Around 10% of women report having had an episode of urinary tract infection (UTI) each year and...

The emerging role of physician associates in urology

The physician associate (PA) is a new role in the NHS which has expanded across medical and surgical specialties to include urology. In the USA, it has long been an established field of practice where physician assistants work autonomously within...

Physiotherapy first for pelvic floor dysfunction

Physiotherapy should be included in first-line management options for pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence in women [1,2]. Additionally, referral to physiotherapy is widely practised for the management of urinary incontinence in men, faecal incontinence, defecation disorders and various pelvic...

An algorithm for the management of haemorrhagic cystitis

Haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) can be one of the most difficult conditions to treat in urological practice. It is characterised by intractable bleeding from the bladder and may be acute or chronic. The most frequently reported causal factors are radiotherapy (RT)...

Urinary incontinence in women – part 2: management

In the second part of our comprehensive overview of urinary incontinence (UI) the authors explore the plethora of treatment options for this complex condition. (Part 1 available here). Conservative management Initial treatment of incontinence should be conservative. Caffeine reduction and...

Reflections on 20 years as an Army Reserve doctor: live a life less ordinary

It seems a very short time ago that my predecessor recruited me into my regiment as a surgical senior house officer during a varicose vein operation in a cottage hospital in Stroud, informing me that I would be only the...

Urinary incontinence in women – part 1: terminology and diagnosis

Introduction Urinary incontinence (UI) is the involuntary and often embarrassing leakage of urine. It is a condition that is both under-reported and under-diagnosed, and when reported it is, unfortunately, often not assessed and managed adequately. Incontinence of urine is encountered...

Guide to gaining approval for a clinical study

This article focuses on gaining approval for clinical research involving NHS patients, although the principles can be applied to other types of research. It can be quite a daunting process for the uninitiated applicant. Often it can be made less...

What to expect when meeting a statistician

There are a growing number of statisticians working closely with medics from all specialties. They have different training but they are driven by the same goal: to perform high quality evidence-based clinical research [1,2]. In a perfect world we would...

An MA in medical education – is it for you?

I have recently completed a three-year MA in medical education at the University of Winchester, which has been an edifying experience. The following article may appeal to readers who are considering such a venture. I have been a consultant for...

A guide for the assessment and management of post-obstructive diuresis

Acute urinary retention is a common condition encountered in the emergency situation and is initially managed by urethral catheterisation. This is often performed by nursing staff or junior doctors. Post-obstructive diuresis (POD) is a specific entity which may occur post...