Priapism

Priapism is defined as an abnormally persistent erection lasting greater than four hours, not associated with sexual desire [1]. Although relatively uncommon with an incidence of 1.5 per 100,000 [2], priapism has a risk of complications which can have a...

Update on immunotherapy for non-muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

Patients with high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) that have failed Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) treatment are a difficult group to treat, and many may not be suitable for the preferred treatment option of radical cystectomy. Bladder-preserving treatments for BCG-unresponsive high-risk...

What is new in lasers for endourology: looking into the future

From the first cystoscopic argon and neodymium-YAG (yttrium-aluminium-garnet) laser used for bladder tumours in 1976 by Staehler et al. [1], lasers have proven to be a versatile and an evolving tool in the therapeutic management of a variety of urological...