The assessment and medical treatment of LUTS secondary to BPH

The term benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) describes prostate enlargement due to non-cancerous processes. Several aetiological mechanisms are involved, including hormonal and vascular alterations; abnormal regulation of apoptosis; and prostatic inflammation, which may stimulate cellular proliferation. With ageing, prostate enlargement can...

Focal therapy for prostate cancer – ready for prime time?

The current therapeutic ratio for radical therapy in many men with localised prostate cancer is not ideal. For a significant side-effect profile, there seems to be a small survival benefit over a 10-15 year period. A strategy that might balance...

An update on antibiotic prophylaxis in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy

Since its inception in the 1980s, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy has remained the standard tool for the histological diagnosis of prostate cancer. There are several advantages to this technique which have led to the widespread use of TRUS in...

ICS updates in continence care: the role of the nurse continence specialist in continence services

The nurse who specialises in continence care is recognised as a key member of interdisciplinary teams seeking to deliver high quality integrated continence services. The recently published international service specifications for continence care [1] supports the use of specialist continence...

The surgical trainer – are we still evolving?

“We need a system and we will surely have it – which will produce not only surgeons, but surgeons of the highest type” William Halsted MD William Halsted, a famous American surgeon, is widely credited with developing the first formal...

Prostate artery embolisation

Introduction Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a common condition associated with ageing, affects 50% of those between the ages of 50 and 60 years, and as many as 90% of those older than 80 years. BPH is characterised by unregulated, benign...

Comedy and continence – don’t make me laugh

I’m a pelvic physiotherapist and, in a fit of temper, I wrote a comedy show about pelvic floors after having yet another woman say to me: “I’ve been leaking since my baby was born.” “How old is your baby?” “He’s...

ICS updates on continence care: making sense of detrusor underactivity and the underactive bladder

Countless epidemiological studies have established the frequent occurrence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and the significant burden these symptoms incur. For the most part of the past three decades, there has been an overwhelming focus on detrusor overactivity (DO)...

Bladder cancer: where are we with intravesical therapies?

In the United Kingdom, almost 10,500 new cases of bladder cancer were identified in 2013, with over 5000 deaths in 2012 [1]. Seventy percent of new cases will be non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at diagnosis and therefore will be...

A time management guide for urologists

Good time management is thought to not only reduce stress, but to improve personal efficiency, service delivery, clinical effectiveness and patient care. It was Benjamin Franklin in the 18th Century who originally made the link between success and the proper...

Use of Clavien-Dindo classification in urology part 2 – upper tract

A classification system of surgical complications was proposed by Clavien in 1992 [1] and further modified by Dindo in 2004 [2]. Clavien-Dindo classification has since then been validated through many retrospective case series as well as in comparative studies to...

Why bother? Metabolic screening for stone formers

Introduction Despite the considerable increase in the incidence of stone disease in the UK and elsewhere in recent years, urologists have engaged with preventative strategies to only a limited degree. With mounting evidence of the strong correlation between obesity and...

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