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Prostate cancer and an electronic nose

So far the transrectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) biopsy has been the ‘gold standard’ for diagnosing prostate cancer. However, it is invasive and can lead to complications, so there is a need for new non-invasive diagnostic tools to avoid unnecessary biopsy...

Why bother? Metabolic screening for stone formers

Introduction Despite the considerable increase in the incidence of stone disease in the UK and elsewhere in recent years, urologists have engaged with preventative strategies to only a limited degree. With mounting evidence of the strong correlation between obesity and...

Thiazide diuretic prophylaxis for kidney stones and the risk of diabetes mellitus

Thiazide diuretics have been used to reduce calcium nephrolithiasis recurrence as it is tolerated well, inexpensive and reduces calcium excretion in urine. It has been linked with increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the presence of hypertension (ALLHAT study),...

Radiation in paediatric urology – PURSE study

Urological operative procedures often use fluoroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of stone disease and structural anomalies. Paediatric tissues are sensitive to the effects of ionising radiation. Paediatric radiation safety has gained concerns due to the possible long-term effects such as...

Nurse practitioner TRUS biopsy: training and preparation

As prostate cancer rates increase, many urology departments rely on multi-professional teams to diagnose and manage patients with prostate cancer. The aim of this article is to highlight the skills, training and preparation required for nurse practitioners to undertake trans-rectal...

Metastatic spinal cord compression – a review

Introduction Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is an oncological emergency that, unless diagnosed early and treated appropriately, can lead to significant morbidity and mortality, including paralysis and bladder and bowel dysfunction. MSCC can be defined as spinal cord or cauda...

Reliability of grading of VUR and other findings on VCUG

The gold standard for diagnosing VUR is still the voiding cycstogram (VCUG). These authors looked at the inter observer variability of grading of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) using a VCUG and highlight the implications for treatment and prognosis as a results....

Visual-estimation (cognitive), image-fusion (software) and in-bore targeted prostate biopsy: is there an optimal approach?

The diagnostic superiority of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) prior to targeted and systematic prostate biopsy over systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS) biopsy alone in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) has been proven by multiple level 1 studies...

Men with a susceptibility to prostate cancer: implications of family history in PCa risk-prediction

Incorporation of family history (FH) status into prostate cancer (PCa) risk stratification has the potential to underpin many aspects of PCa care. This group of men presents a unique challenge in early cancer detection, particularly given that most men without...

Purple urine bag syndrome

Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon phenomenon where the tubing and urinary catheter bag is noticed to undergo purple discolouration. This has been linked with urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic debilitated states and prolonged catheterisation. PUBS was noticed...

Giggle incontinence – not a laughing matter!

For many decades, the condition of giggle incontinence (enuresis risoria, giggle micturition) has remained a rare and poorly understood condition. Patients (90% female) present in their teens, with the history revealing an issue for many years. It is debilitating and...

Clear cell urothelial carcinoma: a highly aggressive morphological variant in the bladder and upper urinary tract

Clear cell urothelial carcinoma (CCUC) is a rare morphological variant of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). It can occur anywhere along the urothelial tract and is characterised histologically by high grade carcinoma with an abundance of clear, glycogen-rich cytoplasm [1]. Alternative...