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Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients after enterocystoplasty

It is well known that enterocystoplasty within terminal ileum leads to vitamin B12 deficiency and regular monitoring of this post-surgery is essential. Often supplements need to be given because of deficiency in up to 40% of patients. These authors looked...

Children with neuropsychiatric developmental disorders respond less well when treated for bladder bowel dysfunction

Bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) is a spectrum of lower urinary tract symptoms and voiding dysfunction accompanied by functional constipation and / or encopresis and may represent up to 47% of paediatric urology consultations. The BBD cycle pattern begins when...

Renal masses

Case 1 A 70-year-old female presented under the medical team with malaise, weight loss, and deranged liver function tests (LFTs) and calcium (ALP 350, GGT 650, Serum bilirubin 29, normal aminotransferases, Ca 3.3). An abdominal ultrasound scan (USS) was performed...

Post-prostatectomy incontinence

Urinary incontinence following prostate surgery (post-prostatectomy incontinence or PPI) is a significant complication that can have a profoundly negative impact on the quality of life of patients suffering with it. It may become a barrier to physical activity and social...

Management of urological issues following genital gender affirmation surgery for individuals assigned female at birth

Gender incongruence arises when there is a mismatch between an individual’s gender identity and their sex assigned at birth. Genital gender affirmation surgery (GAS) is the final step of transition for transgender and non-binary individuals who experience gender incongruence. This...

Curing pure CIS with radical surgery: lessons learned

As carcinoma in situ (CIS) theoretically has no ability to invade or metastasise, performing radical cystectomy for CIS-only disease should be curative. In this single centre review over 37 years, 1964 patients undergoing cystectomy were analysed with 52 undergoing surgery...

Incidental findings on modern imaging

Incidentalomas can be defined in a variety of ways: 1) Imaging abnormality in a healthy, asymptomatic patient; 2) Imaging abnormality not related to a patient’s symptoms or the organs in question; 3) Findings discovered by chance which can potentially affect...

Uncovering the fate of small residual fragments

The concept of ‘stone free’ remains an enigma. To some urologists this refers to complete removal of all visible fragments, to others its removal of all ‘clinically significant’ fragments (generally regarded as fragments >2mm), and to some it is absence...

Testicular microlithiasis

Introduction Testicular microlithiasis (TML) was originally described in 1970 in a healthy four-year-old boy [1] and the first paper regarding microlithiasis as an entity seen on ultrasound was published in 1987 [2]. Testicular microlithiasis is seen on ultrasound as small,...

Frequency-volume chart apps for nocturia: keeping urologists up at night

Background Nocturia is a bothersome symptom and the leading cause of disturbed sleep in adults. It is extremely common, with 55% of men and 60% of women aged 50 waking at least once in the night, with a further 20%...

Results of HoLEP in patients with prostate cancer and LUTS

Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is recommended for the management of benign prostatic obstruction. With similar functional outcomes and less morbidity compared to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), it has become a useful tool in the armament...

Consent: your obligations in the modern, post-Montgomery era

There has been so much recent discussion and so much emphasis placed on the fundamental right that we all have to determine what is or is not done to us, the right to self-determination, that it would be either a...