Bladder cancer

Case 1 A 78-year-old female presents with a week history of painless haematuria. She’s a smoker and used to work in the textiles industry. She underwent a flexible cystoscopy. What does this image show? What are the two-week wait National...

The adrenals

Case 1 A 45-year-old man undergoes a CT of his abdomen to stage a newly diagnosed bowel malignancy. What does the scan show? What findings on a CT scan suggest an adrenal lesion is benign? If the CT scan is...

Uropathology: what’s the diagnosis?

Case 1 A 28-year-old man presented with a left testicular mass. Tumour markers were taken and he went on to have a radical inguinal orchidectomy. The specimen and histology are shown. Which testicular tumour markers were taken? What does their...

Testicular cancer (Jan 2016)

Case 1 A 26-year-old male presented with a two-week history of testicular pain and swelling. On examination the right testicle was enlarged, indurated and tender. Erythema of the scrotum on that side was also noted. Ultrasound of the testis reported...

Prostate cancer

Case 1 What is prostate specific antigen (PSA) and what is its function? According to the ERSPC Trial (at 13 years), what was the number needed to screen and diagnosed to prevent one prostate cancer death and what was the...

Testicular cancer (Mar 2015)

Case 1 What does the ultrasound show? What further imaging does this patient require? Which tumour markers should be checked? What is the half-life of these markers? What does an elevation in these markers mean? Case 2 What is this...

Technology – Part 3

Case 1 Figure A. Figure B. What is shown in figures A and B? What is the diameter of each scope? What is the working channel size of each? What are the advantages of a digital versus optic flexible ureteroscope?...

Technology – Part 2

Case 1 Name the machine shown in the picture and describe how it works. What is the standard frequency of ultrasound waves in this machine? What frequency of ultrasound waves are utilised in an abdominal and scrotal ultrasound? Case 2...

Technology – Part 1

Case 1 What is this and what material is it made from? What property of the catheter does the size refer to? What is the relationship between French size and diameter? What is a biofilm? How can you reduce catheter...

Urologic complications of radiotherapy

Case 1 1. What machine is seen in the picture? 2. What is the standard dose schedule for radiotherapy for prostate cancer? 3. What are the complications of radiotherapy? Case 2 1. How does haemorrhagic cystitis develop? 2. What are...

Urological Complications of Malignancy

Case 1 1. What does this sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan show? 2. Which cancers commonly cause this? 3. What is the acute management? Case 2 1. What is the diagnosis? 2. What local effects can this mass cause?...