Consent

Case 1 A 15-year-old boy attends with his father to have a circumcision on a day case list. He had been seen previously by a colleague and noted to have a tight phimosis with signs suggestive of balanitis xerotica obliterans...

Renal masses

Case 1 A 70-year-old female presented under the medical team with malaise, weight loss, and deranged liver function tests (LFTs) and calcium (ALP 350, GGT 650, Serum bilirubin 29, normal aminotransferases, Ca 3.3). An abdominal ultrasound scan (USS) was performed...

Urolithiasis – metabolic considerations

Case 1 A 32-year-old female patient is diagnosed with a ureteric calculus for the first-time. What type of metabolic evaluation investigations should be performed? When should stone analysis be repeated? What are the most common metabolic abnormalities associated with calcium...