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Prostate cancer

Case 1 What is prostate specific antigen (PSA) and what is its function? According to the ERSPC Trial (at 13 years), what was the number needed to screen and diagnosed to prevent one prostate cancer death and what was the...

Prostate artery embolisation

Introduction Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a common condition associated with ageing, affects 50% of those between the ages of 50 and 60 years, and as many as 90% of those older than 80 years. BPH is characterised by unregulated, benign...

Biomarkers in prostate cancer detection

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men with an estimated prevalence of 1.1 million worldwide in 2012. This heterogeneous disease resulted in approximately 307,000 deaths, making it the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in men...

Introduction to prostate cryotherapy

Introduction Cryotherapy was first described by Dr James Arnott in 1850 where he used crushed ice and salt to get temperatures as low as -24oC, in the treatment of cervical and breast tumours [1]. The literature on prostatic cryotherapy dates...

Advanced prostate cancer and chemotherapy

The treatment pathway for advanced prostate cancer is both puzzling and complex and varies from centre to centre in the UK. The National Prostate Cancer Audit Report 2019 for England and Wales shows that only a quarter of men with...

Focal therapies in prostate cancer

The standard of care in the management of prostate cancer has, to date, always been to treat the whole gland. This has ranged from surveillance, surgical excision / prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy / whole gland brachytherapy. With the evolution...

History of prostate biopsy – part 2

For Part 1 of this topic is available here. The major limitations of the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy (PBx) protocols are the risk of profound sepsis and the risk of persistently significant false negative rates, related to the...

History of prostate biopsy – part 1

Part 2 of this topic is available here. Prostate biopsy (PBx) to exclude cancer has been part of clinical practice since the beginning of the 20th Century. PBx techniques have evolved over time to optimally address some of the unique...

Rotterdam Prostate Cancer Risk app

The widespread use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing has led to diagnostic difficulties for patients and urologists. The sensitivity and specificity characteristics of PSA are far from optimal. To try and improve the predictive accuracy of PSA measurements, nomograms...

Management of Prostate Cancer: A Multidisciplinary Approach

This is an excellent textbook which comprehensively covers the vast field of prostate cancer. The editors, who have co-ordinated phase III European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) trials, have brought together a large array of well-known international...

The role of transperineal template biopsies in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

The case In 2002, Mr A, a 64-year-old software engineer, was referred by his GP for further investigation of a raised prostate specific antigen (PSA) of 6.2. His prostate felt benign. He underwent transrectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) prostate biopsies. This...

Improving on the Rotterdam Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator

Following the PROMIS trial [1], many cancer centres in the UK are now offering pre-biopsy multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) for men suitable for radical treatment. The European Association of Urology for Prostate Cancer (PCa) guidelines recommend individual risk stratification before the...