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Testicular tumour imaging

Testicular tumours are the most common tumour in young males with a peak incidence seen between 25 and 34 years [1]. The overall incidence is slowly increasing, although the exact reasons for this are uncertain, and there is a greater...

Molecular biology – bladder cancer

Background Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urinary tract and approximately 90% of bladder cancers diagnosed in North America and Europe are transitional cell carcinomas (TCC). For the purposes of diagnosis and treatment, bladder cancer is often...

Overview of partial nephrectomy techniques: influence of technology

Traditionally, radical nephrectomy was the preferred operation for kidney cancer, while partial nephrectomy was reserved for specific circumstances and essential indications such as a tumour in a solitary kidney, bilateral kidney tumours, or severe chronic kidney disease (CKD). Given the...

Inguino-scrotal sarcomas

A sarcoma is a malignant tumour that originates from mesenchymal cells such as adipose tissue, bone, cartilage and smooth muscle. Although these tumours histologically do not originate from the urogenital tract, urologists are often involved in their diagnosis and management...

Bladder carcinoma MRI

Bladder malignancy is one of the commonest malignancies of the renal tract, accounting for approximately 6% of male malignancy and 2% of female malignancy. The incidence increases with patient age with 70% of patients being over the age of 65...

Thermal ablative techniques for small renal masses

The incidence of renal cell carcinoma has increased over the past decade which can be partly attributed to the increased use of imaging modalities [1,2]. Nephron sparing procedures for the management of small renal tumours have gained popularity which include...

Use of MRI in the evaluation of prostate cancer: part 2

Diffusion weighted imaging and contrast enhanced imaging Introduction Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in localisation, staging and post-treatment follow-up of prostate cancer. In the previous issue, we discussed the usefulness of MRI in depicting prostate anatomy and pairing...

Oncological Imaging: Urology

Imaging updates on renal tumours, urothelial tumours, prostate, adrenal and retroperitoneal tumours are all covered in this text. Whilst aspects relating to prostate imaging are probably covered better elsewhere, what remains is a decent account nicely contained within a single...

Immunotherapy in renal cancer

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the sixth most common solid organ cancer in the UK. In 2018, there were 403,262 people diagnosed worldwide with the disease (2.2% of all cancer cases), and it accounted for 175,098 deaths in total (1.8%...

Small renal masses – diagnosis and management

Renal cancer is the eighth most common cancer in the UK and accounts for about 3% of all new cancer diagnoses [1]. The incidence rates are steadily rising, with the highest rates being in older men and women. This rise...

Modern management of small renal masses

With the advent of widespread cross-sectional imaging there has been a surge in incidental detection of small renal masses (SRMs) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is now the seventh most common cancer in the UK. Whilst surgical excision for larger...

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents 2-3% of all cancers [1]. It is an adenocarcinoma making up 85% of all renal malignancies. Sarcomatoid transformation is a microscopically identified feature of RCC accounting for 5% of all RCCs [2]. Known as sarcomatoid...