You searched for "cancer"

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Prostate cancer

Case 1 What is prostate specific antigen (PSA) and what is its function? According to the ERSPC Trial (at 13 years), what was the number needed to screen and diagnosed to prevent one prostate cancer death and what was the...

Bladder cancer

Case 1 A 78-year-old female presents with a week history of painless haematuria. She’s a smoker and used to work in the textiles industry. She underwent a flexible cystoscopy. What does this image show? What are the two-week wait National...

Molecular biology – bladder cancer

Background Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urinary tract and approximately 90% of bladder cancers diagnosed in North America and Europe are transitional cell carcinomas (TCC). For the purposes of diagnosis and treatment, bladder cancer is often...

Focal therapies in prostate cancer

The standard of care in the management of prostate cancer has, to date, always been to treat the whole gland. This has ranged from surveillance, surgical excision / prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy / whole gland brachytherapy. With the evolution...

Prostate cancer screening

This editorial is from the University of Minnesota in the USA. The present evidence suggests that prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing provides a small reduction in prostate cancer (CaP) mortality and no reduction in all-causes mortality. The downside is of...

Biomarkers in prostate cancer detection

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men with an estimated prevalence of 1.1 million worldwide in 2012. This heterogeneous disease resulted in approximately 307,000 deaths, making it the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in men...

Recent developments in bladder cancer

There have been some exciting developments in bladder cancer over the last few years. Immunotherapy has prolonged survival in a proportion of patients with metastatic disease, with sustained efficacy in some. Advances in genetic analysis and molecular subtyping make personalised...

Vasectomy and prostate cancer

Urologists are always trying to identify risk factors for prostate cancer (CaP). This population-based study is from Ontario, Canada. The study sample comprised nearly 300,000 men who underwent vasectomy and an equal number who did not. The primary outcome was...

Cryotherapy in prostate cancer

This review of the literature aims to summarise what is known in regards to outcomes in patients undergoing cryotherapy in a number of settings: whole gland, salvage and targeted focal therapy. It highlights that more prostate cancers are being diagnosed...

Bladder cancer – an overshadowed ‘volcano’

Bladder cancer has often been overshadowed by the limelight of prostate cancer. However, of all the urological cancers, bladder cancer is the only one which has shown a slight decline in age-standardised five-year survival rates over the last couple of...

Cord compression in cancer

This article will be of great interest to uro-oncologists. Vertebral metastasis occurs in 3-5% of all cancers (most commonly in prostate, breast and lung cancer). It can cause pain, vertebral collapse and cord compression. Data from the National Institute for...

Prostate cancer and an electronic nose

So far the transrectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) biopsy has been the ‘gold standard’ for diagnosing prostate cancer. However, it is invasive and can lead to complications, so there is a need for new non-invasive diagnostic tools to avoid unnecessary biopsy...