You searched for "cancer"

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Prostate cancer

Case 1 What is prostate specific antigen (PSA) and what is its function? According to the ERSPC Trial (at 13 years), what was the number needed to screen and diagnosed to prevent one prostate cancer death and what was the...

Bladder cancer

Case 1 A 78-year-old female presents with a week history of painless haematuria. She’s a smoker and used to work in the textiles industry. She underwent a flexible cystoscopy. What does this image show? What are the two-week wait National...

Molecular biology – bladder cancer

Background Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urinary tract and approximately 90% of bladder cancers diagnosed in North America and Europe are transitional cell carcinomas (TCC). For the purposes of diagnosis and treatment, bladder cancer is often...

COVID-19: cancer and corticosteroids

Under the prevailing COVID-19 crisis, this article is well worth reading. The current World Health Organization (WHO) guidance is not to start steroids in cancer cases, but there is no clear evidence of risks with steroids in cancer patients having...

Covid-19, cancer, and other calamities

The coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic is upon us. The government and NHS are going full-steam ahead with their preparations for the onslaught, freeing up operating theatres, intensive care units, and even private hospital beds and staff, to accommodate the expected influx...

Focal therapies in prostate cancer

The standard of care in the management of prostate cancer has, to date, always been to treat the whole gland. This has ranged from surveillance, surgical excision / prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy / whole gland brachytherapy. With the evolution...

Biomarkers in prostate cancer detection

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men with an estimated prevalence of 1.1 million worldwide in 2012. This heterogeneous disease resulted in approximately 307,000 deaths, making it the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in men...

Recent developments in bladder cancer

There have been some exciting developments in bladder cancer over the last few years. Immunotherapy has prolonged survival in a proportion of patients with metastatic disease, with sustained efficacy in some. Advances in genetic analysis and molecular subtyping make personalised...

Advanced prostate cancer and chemotherapy

The treatment pathway for advanced prostate cancer is both puzzling and complex and varies from centre to centre in the UK. The National Prostate Cancer Audit Report 2019 for England and Wales shows that only a quarter of men with...

Bladder cancer – an overshadowed ‘volcano’

Bladder cancer has often been overshadowed by the limelight of prostate cancer. However, of all the urological cancers, bladder cancer is the only one which has shown a slight decline in age-standardised five-year survival rates over the last couple of...

Immunotherapy in renal cancer

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the sixth most common solid organ cancer in the UK. In 2018, there were 403,262 people diagnosed worldwide with the disease (2.2% of all cancer cases), and it accounted for 175,098 deaths in total (1.8%...

Testicular cancer (Jan 2016)

Case 1 A 26-year-old male presented with a two-week history of testicular pain and swelling. On examination the right testicle was enlarged, indurated and tender. Erythema of the scrotum on that side was also noted. Ultrasound of the testis reported...