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Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents 2-3% of all cancers [1]. It is an adenocarcinoma making up 85% of all renal malignancies. Sarcomatoid transformation is a microscopically identified feature of RCC accounting for 5% of all RCCs [2]. Known as sarcomatoid...

Bladder carcinoma MRI

Bladder malignancy is one of the commonest malignancies of the renal tract, accounting for approximately 6% of male malignancy and 2% of female malignancy. The incidence increases with patient age with 70% of patients being over the age of 65...

Endoscopic management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma

Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a rare disease accounting for 5-10% of all urothelial carcinomas and has an annual incidence in Western countries of 1-2 per 100,000 [1,2]. It occurs more commonly in the pelvicalyceal system as opposed to...

Occupational tumours of the urinary tract: The work of Denis Poole-Wilson

In this series of articles I am going to show you some of the exhibits contained in the Museum of Urology, hosted on the BAUS website (www.baus.org.uk). In the last article I said I would be taking you to the...

Molecular biology – bladder cancer

Background Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urinary tract and approximately 90% of bladder cancers diagnosed in North America and Europe are transitional cell carcinomas (TCC). For the purposes of diagnosis and treatment, bladder cancer is often...

Understanding Stauffer’s syndrome

Who was Stauffer and what is Stauffer’s syndrome? Maurice Stauffer (1915-1994) was a gastroenterologist at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, United States, and in 1961 first characterised the non-metastatic, paraneoplastic effects of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) on liver size and...

Immunotherapy in renal cancer

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the sixth most common solid organ cancer in the UK. In 2018, there were 403,262 people diagnosed worldwide with the disease (2.2% of all cancer cases), and it accounted for 175,098 deaths in total (1.8%...

Thermal ablative techniques for small renal masses

The incidence of renal cell carcinoma has increased over the past decade which can be partly attributed to the increased use of imaging modalities [1,2]. Nephron sparing procedures for the management of small renal tumours have gained popularity which include...

A review of the diagnosis and management of urethral caruncles

Introduction The innocuous urethral caruncle is the most common benign urethral lesion in females. It can pose a significant challenge to urologists due to the plethora of differentials and poor evidence surrounding management. In 1926, Ferrier eloquently described the macroscopic...

Urethral pathology

Case 1 A 43-year-old lady presents with urinary incontinence and vaginal pain associated with intercourse. An initial CT scan is performed. Case courtesy of Radswiki, Radiopaedia.org, rID: 12056. Case courtesy of Radswiki, Radiopaedia.org, rID: 12056 What is the clinical diagnosis...

Surgical Techniques for Kidney Cancer

The principle advantage to this book over other more augmented texts is its conciseness. As a result, the editors are compelled to deliver a more focused approach to the management of kidney cancer. Although the title purports to consider ‘surgical’...

EAU Pocket Guidelines App

The European Association of Urology (EAU) has consistently led on the latest guidelines and advanced the care of urology since its inception. The EAU Pocket Guidelines app provides pocket guideline summaries of the full EAU Guidelines collection. The app is...