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Bladder cancer

Case 1 A 78-year-old female presents with a week history of painless haematuria. She’s a smoker and used to work in the textiles industry. She underwent a flexible cystoscopy. What does this image show? What are the two-week wait National...

Recent developments in bladder cancer

There have been some exciting developments in bladder cancer over the last few years. Immunotherapy has prolonged survival in a proportion of patients with metastatic disease, with sustained efficacy in some. Advances in genetic analysis and molecular subtyping make personalised...

Molecular biology – bladder cancer

Background Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urinary tract and approximately 90% of bladder cancers diagnosed in North America and Europe are transitional cell carcinomas (TCC). For the purposes of diagnosis and treatment, bladder cancer is often...

Bladder cancer – an overshadowed ‘volcano’

Bladder cancer has often been overshadowed by the limelight of prostate cancer. However, of all the urological cancers, bladder cancer is the only one which has shown a slight decline in age-standardised five-year survival rates over the last couple of...

Treating Urothelial Bladder Cancer

This is a short book comprising 129 pages of text which I read in one afternoon. It provides a useful update on one of the most common malignancies encountered by urologists worldwide, which experienced urologists and trainees alike would benefit...

Urinary biomarkers for surveillance of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

Bladder cancer (BC) is the ninth most common cancer worldwide with a yearly incidence of approximately 430,000 cases. There is a male predominance and it is the seventh most common cancer in men worldwide [1]. Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC)...

Recent developments in bladder cancer – NMIBC

Every year, roughly 10,300 individuals are diagnosed with bladder cancer in the UK, making it the 11th most common cancer in the UK, and the eighth most common cancer in men [1]. Of those diagnosed with the disease, 75-85% will...

Bladder cancer: where are we with intravesical therapies?

In the United Kingdom, almost 10,500 new cases of bladder cancer were identified in 2013, with over 5000 deaths in 2012 [1]. Seventy percent of new cases will be non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at diagnosis and therefore will be...

Bladder cancer outcomes in patients with spina bifida

These authors carried out a systematic review using PubMed and a number of terms to pick up studies with an underlying diagnosis of myelomeningocele and bladder cancer, with exclusions of cord injury, tuberculosis, schistosomiasis, or prior ureterosigmoidostomy. Their aim was...

Repeat transurethral resection in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

The authors felt this is a big problem because there is no standardised practice on re-resection following initial transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). Getting detrusor muscle in the first specimen is thought to be important. However muscle is not...

Comparing intravesical chemohyperthermia with Mitomycin C versus BCG in treating bladder cancer

In the advent of the recent Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) crisis, the importance of alternative adjuvant treatments for intermediate- and high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has been highlighted. Chemohyperthermia (CHT) has emerged as an option, however there remains a lack of...

The importance of second-look transurethral resection for superficial bladder cancer

This was a prospective study of 100 consecutive patients with a newly diagnosed superficial bladder tumour who underwent a second look transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) two to six weeks post initial resection. This essentially included pTa multiple and...
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