Technology – Part 1

Case 1 What is this and what material is it made from? What property of the catheter does the size refer to? What is the relationship between French size and diameter? What is a biofilm? How can you reduce catheter...

Urologic complications of radiotherapy

Case 1 1. What machine is seen in the picture? 2. What is the standard dose schedule for radiotherapy for prostate cancer? 3. What are the complications of radiotherapy? Case 2 1. How does haemorrhagic cystitis develop? 2. What are...

Ureteric strictures

Case 1 What is this investigation? What are the findings of this investigation? What are the causes for this? What are the treatment options? Case 2 Image 1. Image 2. What do these X-Ray KUB films show? What are the...

Upper Tract Developmental Abnormalities

Case 1 1. What is the abnormality and how common is it? 2. What is the embryological origin? 3. With what other conditions can this be associated? Case 2 1. What is the diagnosis and how common is it? 2....

Urological Complications of Malignancy

Case 1 1. What does this sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan show? 2. Which cancers commonly cause this? 3. What is the acute management? Case 2 1. What is the diagnosis? 2. What local effects can this mass cause?...