Nocturnal enuresis in children

Introduction Nocturnal enuresis is the complaint of bedwetting. The 2010 National Institute for Health & Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines define bedwetting as the “involuntary wetting during sleep without any inherent suggestion of frequency of bedwetting or pathophysiology” [1]. Bedwetting is...

The PROMIS trial – time for multi-parametric MRI before a first prostate biopsy

Whilst the relatively random process of 12 core transrectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) prostate biopsy remains by far the most widely employed approach to prostate cancer diagnosis in the UK, its flaws as a standalone diagnostic strategy are increasingly apparent. TRUS-biopsy...

ICS updates in continence care: a personal perspective on the role of basic science in urology

At a urology research meeting in Sheffield a few years ago, a former post doctorate researcher in urology, Mathieu Boudes, said: “Stop calling it basic research, there is nothing basic about it. It is fundamental research to everything urologists do.”...

Consent: your obligations in the modern, post-Montgomery era

There has been so much recent discussion and so much emphasis placed on the fundamental right that we all have to determine what is or is not done to us, the right to self-determination, that it would be either a...

Surgical treatment of LUTS secondary to BPH

For the vast majority of patients an initial trial of medical therapy for the management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is indicated [1]. In a substantial minority of cases however, a surgical intervention...

What’s new in post prostatectomy incontinence?

With an ageing population, the number of men being diagnosed with prostate cancer each year is steadily rising. With more specific investigations, such as multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MpMRI) and transperineal biopsies, the number of cases diagnosed at an earlier...

Small renal masses – diagnosis and management

Renal cancer is the eighth most common cancer in the UK and accounts for about 3% of all new cancer diagnoses [1]. The incidence rates are steadily rising, with the highest rates being in older men and women. This rise...

An overview of daytime wetting in children

It is estimated that daytime wetting affects one in seventy-five children over the age of five years [1]. Daytime wetting is commoner in younger children (1 in 7 aged 4.5 years, 1 in 20 aged 9.5 years) [1]. Many younger...

An introduction to research governance

Research is the process of acquiring new generalisable knowledge and should be fully integrated into healthcare work. There is a growing drive to encourage and further develop evidence-based practice in medicine so that staff and patients benefit from improved healthcare...

The assessment and medical treatment of LUTS secondary to BPH

The term benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) describes prostate enlargement due to non-cancerous processes. Several aetiological mechanisms are involved, including hormonal and vascular alterations; abnormal regulation of apoptosis; and prostatic inflammation, which may stimulate cellular proliferation. With ageing, prostate enlargement can...

Focal therapy for prostate cancer – ready for prime time?

The current therapeutic ratio for radical therapy in many men with localised prostate cancer is not ideal. For a significant side-effect profile, there seems to be a small survival benefit over a 10-15 year period. A strategy that might balance...

An update on antibiotic prophylaxis in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy

Since its inception in the 1980s, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy has remained the standard tool for the histological diagnosis of prostate cancer. There are several advantages to this technique which have led to the widespread use of TRUS in...