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Imaging and radiology

Case 1 What radiological test is this and what does it show? What is the typical radio-nucleotide used for this study, what is its half-life and how is it excreted? Approximately how long does this study take to perform? What...

Imaging of varicoceles

A varicocele is a collection of dilated, tortuous spermatic veins of the pampiniform venous plexus. It is seen in 10-15% of the general population and is associated with both primary and secondary infertility. A varicocele is the most common cause...

Oncological Imaging: Urology

Imaging updates on renal tumours, urothelial tumours, prostate, adrenal and retroperitoneal tumours are all covered in this text. Whilst aspects relating to prostate imaging are probably covered better elsewhere, what remains is a decent account nicely contained within a single...

Incidental findings on modern imaging

Incidentalomas can be defined in a variety of ways: 1) Imaging abnormality in a healthy, asymptomatic patient; 2) Imaging abnormality not related to a patient’s symptoms or the organs in question; 3) Findings discovered by chance which can potentially affect...

Testicular tumour imaging

Testicular tumours are the most common tumour in young males with a peak incidence seen between 25 and 34 years [1]. The overall incidence is slowly increasing, although the exact reasons for this are uncertain, and there is a greater...

Early British pioneers of urological imaging

In this series of articles I am going to show you some of the exhibits contained in the Museum of Urology, hosted on the BAUS website (www.baus.org.uk). In this article I am joined by Gavin Gordon of Newcastle University whose...

Pelvic floor imaging – a brief synopsis

Background Pelvic floor imaging is an important part of both gastrointestinal and functional urology / urogynaecological departments. Symptoms such as obstructive defecation, incontinence and sphincter complex disorders have a significant impact on patient lifestyle and physical / mental well-being [1,2]....

Renal calculi: the role of imaging in pregnancy

Nephrolithiasis is the most common cause of non-obstetric abdominal pain in pregnancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as stone related complications can lead to pre-eclampsia, urosepsis, and premature labour [1,2]. In the general population, non-contrast cross sectional imaging is recommended by...

The role of PET-CT imaging in prostate cancer

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in the UK, with 43,000 cases in 2017-18 [1,2]. Accurate primary staging and the detection of suspected recurrence following treatment is vital for directing management and predicting prognosis. This has conventionally...

Imaging and Intervention in Urinary Tract Infections and Urosepsis

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are highly prevalent in the community and account for approximately 40% of hospital-acquired infections. Yet, they are often underestimated and under-diagnosed: as one chapter of this book is entitled, nothing is simple about acute pyelonephritis. This...

Indeterminate renal lesions – a pragmatic imaging approach

The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the UK has increased steadily over the last two decades, largely driven by the increasing use of abdominal imaging and the incidental detection of small renal lesions [1]. The majority of incidental...

PET imaging of prostate-specific membrane antigen in prostate cancer

Molecular imaging utilising prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) as a target has increasingly been mentioned at key conferences and meetings. PSMA is a membrane metalloenzyme that is overexpressed in prostate cancer, with the degree of expression appears to correlate with tumour...