You searched for "haematuria"

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The emerging role of physician associates in urology

The physician associate (PA) is a new role in the NHS which has expanded across medical and surgical specialties to include urology. In the USA, it has long been an established field of practice where physician assistants work autonomously within...

Bladder cancer – an overshadowed ‘volcano’

Bladder cancer has often been overshadowed by the limelight of prostate cancer. However, of all the urological cancers, bladder cancer is the only one which has shown a slight decline in age-standardised five-year survival rates over the last couple of...

A negative ureteroscopy for stone disease: is it acceptable and is it avoidable?

Urinary tract stone disease and the consequent demand for endoscopic intervention in the upper urinary tract is an increasing phenomenon [1]. Although ureteroscopy is generally considered to be associated with low morbidity [2], risks do exist. Recognised complications include urothelial...

Management of lower urinary tract foreign bodies

Of all the urological emergencies presenting to the emergency department, perhaps one of the most technically challenging cases is the patient with a foreign body in the genitourinary (GU) tract. A wide variety of GU foreign bodies have been reported...

Use of bone windows in urological CT

Introduction Unenhanced computed tomography of kidneys, ureter and bladder (CTKUB) is the recommended gold standard investigation in patients with acute renal colic. CT urography is now a commonly used technique in the investigation of haematuria, for surgical planning and for...

Urinary incontinence in women – part 1: terminology and diagnosis

Introduction Urinary incontinence (UI) is the involuntary and often embarrassing leakage of urine. It is a condition that is both under-reported and under-diagnosed, and when reported it is, unfortunately, often not assessed and managed adequately. Incontinence of urine is encountered...

Ejaculatory dysfunction and the treatment of LUTS

For years ejaculatory dysfunction in men following medical or surgical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) was thought to be a result of disruption of the bladder neck mechanism and the subsequent retrograde flow of semen. Men commenced on...

Inpatient care of patients with established spinal cord injury - what a general urologist needs to know

Introduction Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating, life-changing condition, which is currently irreversible. Depending on the level of the spinal cord affected (and whether the lesion is complete or incomplete), patients may subsequently develop reduced voluntary motor function, sensory...

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents 2-3% of all cancers [1]. It is an adenocarcinoma making up 85% of all renal malignancies. Sarcomatoid transformation is a microscopically identified feature of RCC accounting for 5% of all RCCs [2]. Known as sarcomatoid...

A Core Trainee’s Guide to Preparing for a Career in Urology

National Selection pits the best of the UK’s core surgical trainees (sorry – that includes EEC countries as well) against each other in a process that determines who is allowed to proceed into higher surgical training. For the successful, it...

Small renal masses – diagnosis and management

Renal cancer is the eighth most common cancer in the UK and accounts for about 3% of all new cancer diagnoses [1]. The incidence rates are steadily rising, with the highest rates being in older men and women. This rise...

Use of Clavien-Dindo classification in urology part 2 – upper tract

A classification system of surgical complications was proposed by Clavien in 1992 [1] and further modified by Dindo in 2004 [2]. Clavien-Dindo classification has since then been validated through many retrospective case series as well as in comparative studies to...